海峡人才网中考轻松得高分 - Ekwing 中考 英语阅读解题技巧全攻略,2018-翼课网

作者:admin , 分类:全部文章 , 浏览:180
中考轻松得高分 | Ekwing 中考 英语阅读解题技巧全攻略,2018-翼课网


翼课网
>
掌握学习之道
Your Way, Your Wing
<

阅读理解旨在考查学生阅读、理解的能力。近几年来,中考英语题中的阅读理解材料新颖,题材丰富全南政府网 ,考查学生综合推断能力、根据语篇猜单词意思的能力的力度加大,考查学生关注细节的能力占很大部分。所以学生往往要么没能正确理解语篇中某些句子的意思,在细节题上丢分,要么就是对语篇的整体把握不够,在综合题或者推断题方面丢分。那么到底怎么做好阅读理解这一题型呢?

解题思路一、读问题,弄清考察要点
先读问题,弄清考查要点,以便能带着问题看文章,这样会心中有数,有的放矢。
二、浏览全文,掌握全貌
快速浏览全文,掌握全貌,注意发现与问题有关的信息,如果时间紧,至少要扫视一下起首段和尾段。再把标题和文章内容结合起来想一想,这样全文大意便清楚了。
三、细读全文,捕捉关键词
细读原文,捕捉相关信息词,掌握短文细节内容。这是解题的关键,应特别注意以下几点:
1. 抓住四个"W"和一个"H",就是边读边用铅笔做些标记,把What (事件),When(时间),Where(地点),Why(原因),How(经过)划出来。抓住了四个“W”和一个“H”,就抓住了文章的全貌,一些直接性的问题便可解决。
2.抓住连接词及起关键作用的副词、代词、介词、插入语等。因为这些词具有因果,让步,递进,转折,指代,列举及承上启下等各种连接上下文的特殊功能。这对考生分清文章层次,辨明各种关系,了解人物心理,推断作者意图,进行逻辑推理等手段来分析难点,都具有举足轻重的作用。
3. 注意领会文章的寓意。
4.根据题意,初选答案三途川 。这一步须仔细审题,领会测试要求,确定解题方法。对那些明显的,有把握的题可以断然确定,不必把其余三个答案再作推敲而浪费时间:有些略难的题,应再查阅短文(不是重读一遍),迅速找出依据,予以排除。
解题方法
① 直接解题法。即从原文中直接找出答案。
② 归纳解题法。对于不能从原文中直接找出答案的可在把握全文中心和线索的前题下进行概括、归纳得出正确答案。
③ 综合推理法。读者需统观全文,认真分析,综合推理及至计算,最后归纳出正确答案。
题干中有"suggest, conclude, conclusion, probably, reason, because, according to“等字眼时,属于推断概括型,考查内容着眼于全篇,考生应具备一定的分析归纳,推理等逻辑思维能力。
④ 捕捉关键词。在阅读时应该注意与问题相关的同义词,近义词,反义词或同位词等信息词来得出正确答案锁情环 。
⑤ 转换解题法。即原文这么说,而在问题和所给选项中则用另外的词去转换一种说法,但仍表示同一含义。
⑥ 排除法。根据语言,句法结构,信息词和常识,在没有把握的选项中用排除法得出正确答案。
四、重读全文,核对答案
重读原文,仔细斟酌核对答案。在解完最后一道题后,如果时间允许,再将原文读一遍;用全文的主题思想统率各思考题,研究其内在联系和逻辑关系,目的在于对所做答案进一步审查,推出未解答的题,以便减少失误。

题材分析
家庭、朋友与个人情况
在中考阅读理解中,记叙文阅读题目的考查难度逐年增加,多使用贴近学生生活的素材,多以故事形式出现。针对这种题型主要抓四大要素,即时间、地点、人物和事件的起因、发展和结果,以及人物之间的关系,从中分析他们的思想品质、性格特征等;理解文章大意后,找出关键的句子和一些与考查内容有关的问题所在小天鹅品园 ,这样,便于我们解题时“顺藤摸瓜”,找出问题的答案。
这类阅读一般是对文章理解能力的考查,抓住文章的关键句和关键词是非常重要的。
例题精选
1990 was a significant year in world events.In February,Nelson Mandela was set free after 27 years in prison.In October,East and West Germany became one country again.Then at the end of 1990,the World Wide Web was born.For this final event we have one man to thank,Tim Berners Lee,the father of the Web.
Berners Lee was born on June 8,1955 in London,England.His parents,both computer designers,encouraged him to think and work creatively as he grew up.He was an excellent student and naturally took an interest in computers and science.
After graduating from Oxford University,Tim went to work at a science research centre in Switzerland.There he developed some of the different systems that would later become the Web.The first was HTML,the computer language used to make web pages.The second was an address system that let computers anywhere find each other and send and receive information.In 1990,while still at the science centre in Switzerland,he put them together to make the first Internet browser(浏览器).It could run on any computer and allowed people to creat website to share their information with the rest of the world.
Tim knew that the more people used the Web,themore useful it would be.He wasn't interested in money but knowledge,so he gave out his inventionfor free to anyone who was interested.Many wereinterested and the growth of the Internet began.
Today Tim works as a professor at the MIT in America,researching new and interesting ways to use the Web.He has received many awards from governments and organizations for his efforts.He is still not very interested in money.That is why he is so admired by his students and workmates.It may also be one of the reasons that few people outside the world of technology know his name.
阅读短文,根据短文内容选择最佳答案。
1.The underlined word "significant" (in Paragraph 1) most probably means "_________".
A.strange B.terrible C.importantD.difficult
2.Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?曹晓雯
A.The address system was used to make web pages.
B.The World Wide Web was created in Switzerland.
C.The first web browser was very expensive to buy.
D.Many people could use the Internet before 1990.
3.What can we learn about Berners Lee from the passage?
A.He was encouraged to be creative.
B.He didn't do well at school.
C.He is a very poor businessman.
D.He is well known all over the world.
4.Where does Berners Lee live today?
A.England. B.Switzerland. C.America.D.Canada.
5.What is the passage mainly about?
A.The events that took place in 1990.
B.The history of the Internet.
C.The invention of the Internet browser.
D.The man who created the Word Wide Web
答案解析:
1.C 根据第一段第三、四句话可知,发生在 1990 年的世界事件:东西德统一陈有汉,World Wide Web 的诞生。由此我们不难推测出,significant 是指“重要,重大”。故选 C。
2.B 根据第三段“...an address system that let computers anywhere find each other and send and receive information...”可知选项 A 与此不符;根据第四段可知,Tim 只对知识感兴趣而对金钱并不感兴趣,因此他免费贡献出他的发明 web browser,故选项 C 不正确;根据第一段,我们知道 web 是在 1990 年诞生的,因此 1990 年前,人们不可能使用 web,故排除 D。所以正确答案为 B。
3.A 根据第二段可知,Tim 学习成绩优秀,故排除 B;文中没有提 Tim 是个商人,故排除 C;根据最后一段最后一句话“...few people outside the world of technology know his name.”可知 Tim 并非世界闻名,故排除D滚滚红尘简谱 。根据文中第二段“...encouraged him to think andwork creatively...”可知正确答案为 A。
4.C 根据最后一段第一句可知 Tim 现在住在美国。
5.D 这篇文章主要介绍的是 Web 之父 Tim Berners Lee
学校生活与语言学习
学校生活与语言学习是中考阅读理解考查的一个热点话题饮马流花河 ,一方面与学生生活、学习、交流等息息相关;另一方面,来自社会海峡人才网 ,紧贴社会生活,具有一定的时代感和现实意义。这类话题多是说明文,做题时要注意说明的对象、内容及说明方法。这类题要注意每段话的开头部分,整体把握材料信息。
做题思路:把握信息,找出题眼,梳理信息,进行解答问题。
例题精选
When you see the girl for the first time,you may think she is a boy.She is very outgoing(外向的).Who is she? Wang Meng女烈老虎凳 ,the Chinese top skater.
On the evening of February 26th,2010,Wang Meng first got to the finishing line in 1 minute and 29.213 seconds in the women's 1000 meters short track speed skating final(短道速滑决赛) at the Vancouver Olympic Winter Games(温哥华冬奥会).Aftershe succeeded in the 500-metre and 3000-metre races,she won her third gold medal this time.With this one China won four gold medals in the women's short track speed skating.That helped China first win the team gold medal in Winter Olympics history.
Just before the final race Wang Meng caught a bad coldnd coughed terribly.With the words of "You can,you can do!" she won at last.She said,"I really feel these threegold medals belong to my team,to China.It was with the help of my team that I won the prize."
Though Wang Meng is only twenty-four,she has been the most successful Chinese skater.We are proud of her and her team.We hope she will be faster in Sochi Olympics in 2014.
阅读短文,根据短文内容选择最佳答案。
1.China won gold medals in the women's short track speed skating.
A.2 B.3 C.4 D.5
2.It took Wang Meng 1 minute and 29.213 seconds to finish the short track speed skating final.
A.women's 1000 B.men's 1000
C.women's 500D.men's 500
3.In Wang Meng's opinion,made her win the prize at last.
A.a strong bodyB.a bad cold
C.her team's help D.much exercise
4.Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
A.Wang Meng is very outgoing like a boy.
B.Wang Meng is the most successful Chinese skater.
C.Chinese people are proud of Wang Meng and her team.
D.China has got the team gold medal twice in Winter Olympics history.
答案解析:
1.C 由第二段倒数第二句“With this one China won four gold medals...”可知正确答案为 C。
2.A 由第二段第一句“...Wang Meng first got to the finishing line in 1 minute and 29.213 seconds in women's 1000 meters...”可知正确答案为 A。
3.C 由第一段最后两句“I really feel these three gold medals belong to my team... with the help of my team that I won the prize.”可知由于团队的帮助她才获得了成功,故正确答案为 C。
4.D 由第二段最后一句“That helped China first win the team gold medal...”可知 D 项的表述是错误的
天气与自然
随着社会经济的快速发展,社会和谐已提上日程,天气与自然环境很快就成为人们关注的话题之一。此类话题多是说明文和议论文。这就要求我们了解说明文和议论文的特点,这样才能对问题进一步地分析和解读,才能自觉地完成命题要求,取得高分。
解题思路:把握该类话题的特征,对所给信息进行归纳整合
例题精选
Earthquakes happen without warning(前兆).They can happen any time of a day,at any point during the year.When an earthquake is happening,youshould know what you should do or not do.
Do NOT go outside.You could get injured from falling glass or parts of buildings.If you are outside,stay away from buildings and power lines(输电线).
Stay under a desk古武至尊 ,table,or other strong furniture.Hold on to it.Or stay in a corner of the building.Cover your face and head with your arms and cover your mouth with a towel or clothing.Stay inside until shaking stops and it is safe to go outside.
Keep away from windows,pictures or advertisements on the wall or the building,and anything elsethat could fall and hurt you.Most people get injured by falling things during an earthquake,not by the shaking itself.
Also keep away from a fire.You could fall down and burn yourself on the fire.
If you are driving when an earthquake happens,stop the car if it's safe.Stay inside your car until the earthquake stops,and don't drive near bridges.Try not to stop by power lines or trees.These could fall and hurt you.
阅读短文,根据短文内容选择最佳答案。
1.It isn't safe for you to _______ while the earthquake is happening.
A.run out of the building
B.stay in a corner of the building
C.cover your head with your arms
D.cover your mouth with a towel
2.From this passage,we know _______.
A.many people fear earthquakes
B.earthquakes maybe happen at any time
C.we can't save ourselves in an earthquake
D.people never get injured in earthquakes
3.The best title for this passage should be "_______".
A.How Earthquakes Happen
B.How to Drive a Car
C.What We Should Do in Earthquakes
D.Why Earthquakes Happen
答案解析:
1.A BCD 三项在第三段可找到答案;根据第二段内容可知 A 项的做法是不安全的,故正确答案为 A。
2.B 根据第一段前两句可知,地震可能随时会发生,故 B 项为正确答案。
3.C 通过全文可知本文主要是在介绍发生地震时,我们应该采取哪些措施才能使自己避免受伤,故正确答案为 C。
历史与地理
本话题在中考中所占比例不多,在历史方面要注意历史事件发生的时间、地点、原因以及有何影响等,而对地理知识的考查,一般多与旅游观光等内容相结合,这就要求我们了解各地的名胜古迹、遗址等。
解题思路:熟悉文章,找准问题关键所在,提高解题速度和质量。
例题精选
On February 3rd,1949,New York Harbor(港) was an exciting place.Many people were there to greet a ship from France.On the ship were 49 French railroad boxcars(火车车厢) filled with gifts from the people of France to the people of America.These boxcars were from the famous Merci Train (Merci,a French word meaning "thank you").
After world War Ⅱ(二战),a lot of factories,roads and farms in France had been destroyed.Many French people had no jobs or money and had little to wear and little to eat.In the winter of 1947,a train was sent across the United States,stopping in cities and towns along the way.At every stop,people gave whatever they could.Factories gave clothing and medicine.Farmers gave food.Families gave money.Even school children gave away their pocket money(零用钱).All the things were then taken to France by ship.
By 1949,the French had begun to recover(恢复) from the war.The Merci Train was their way of saying "thank you" to America.French people had filled the boxcars with gifts.Most of them were personal,like hand-made toys,children's drawings,or postcards.But the boxcars themselves were perhaps the most meaningful of the gifts.On each car,the French people had painted the pictures of all their 40 provinces,with an American eagle on the front.The boxcars were taken to each state of America,where they were warmly greeted.
Now many of the states still keep their boxcars.Gifts sent by the French people can still be seen in some museums.The Merci Train came out of the war,but it now reminds the world that countries can also work together in peace(和平).
阅读短文,根据短文内容选择最佳答案。
1.Many people crowded at New York Harbor on February 3rd,1949 to ________.
A.welcome the Merci Train
B.meet their families
C.have a big party
D.start a trip by ship
2.In 1947,a train stopped in cities across America in order to ________.
A.give away clothing and food
B.get more soldiers for the war
C.collect things to help French people
D.show exhibitions from the museums
3.The underlined word "them" in Paragraph 3 refers to(指) ________.
A.the American people
B.the French people
C.the boxcars
D.the gifts
4.The French people painted their 40 provinces and an American eagle on each boxcar because _______.
A.they thought France was stronger than America
B.it could show the friendship between the two countries
C.the boxcars would be more beautiful
D.they were very good at painting pictures
5.The passage is mainly about _______.
A.the story of the Merci Train
B.American museums where the boxcars are keptC.gifts that American people liked
D.World War Ⅱ
答案解析:
1.A 根据第一段内容我们可知许多人来到 New York Harbor 的目的是为了欢迎来自法国的 Merci Train,故正确答案为 A。
2.C 根据“At every stop,people gave whatever they could... All the things were then taken to France by ship.”可以推测出正确答案为 C。
3.D 根据第三段第三句和第四句的 personal,like hand-made toys...”可知 them 指代的是 gifts,故正确答案为 D。
4.B 根据“...the French people had painted the pictures of all their 40 provinces,...where they were warmly greeted.”可以推测出正确答案为 B。
5.A 通过文章内容我们可知整篇文章都是围绕 Merci Train 来写的,故正确答案为 A。
社会万象
在中考阅读理解中,本话题包括的题材很多,它们来自生活,来自社会,针对这些题材要求抓住关键的句子和一些与考查内容有关的问题所在,这样便于我们解题时“顺藤摸瓜”,找出问题的答案。这种题型一般是对文章理解能力的考查,抓住文章的关键句和关键词是非常重要的。
解题思路:看清题干,明确把握问题指向,带着问题读文章,避免“回视”现象,提高做题的速度,提高解题质量。
例题精选
In most cultures,when you meet people you knowfor the first time during a day,it is usual to greetthem.Once a young woman from England went toHong Kong to work.When she first arrived,she knew little about the Chinese culture of language.On her way to school one day,she went to a bankto get some money.To her surprise,the bank clerk asked her if she had had her lunch.She was surprised at such a question because in the British culture it would mean an invitation to lunch.Between unmarried young people it can also mean the young man's interest in dating the girl.Since this bank clerk was a stranger to the British woman,shewas very puzzled仙府奇缘 ,and quickly answered that she had eaten already.After this she went on to schooland was even more surprised when one of the teachers asked her the same question.
By now she understood that it could not be an invitation but was puzzled as to why they asked it.In
the following days she was asked the same question again and again and she spent many hours trying to work out why so many people kept asking herthis.At last she thought that these people must be concerned about(关心) her health.She was rather thin at the time,and she thought they must be
worrying that she was not eating well间之楔小说 !
In fact the question like that has no real meaning at all — it is only a greeting.
根据短文内容,判断句子的正误,正确的在括号内写“T”,错误的写“F”。
1.The young British woman went to Hong Kong for work.
2.The British woman went to the bank to get some money.
3.The bank clerk invited the young British woman to lunch.
4.The teacher's question made the British woman happy.
5.In fact the young British woman didn't know much about Chinese culture.
答案解析:
1.T 根据“Once a young woman from England...”可知这年轻英国妇女是来香港工作的,故此句表述是正确的。
2.T 根据“...she went to a bank to get some money.”可知此句表述是正确的。
3.F 通过本文最后一句我们可以了解到,在中国问别人“吃了吗”是表问候万界天王 ,而不一定是真正的想请人吃饭。故此句的错误的。
4.F 根据“After this she went on to school and was even more surprised...”可知此句表述是错误的。
5.T 根据文章内容我们知道,这位英国妇女对中国文化不是很了解,所以对“if she had had her lunch”产生困惑。
当然,中考英语阅读理解题的材料远不止这些种类,但只要运用了上面的基本的解题技巧,也能把这个题型做得很好。
文章来源:百度文库
编辑:魏晓萌
内容版权归原作者所有
若有侵权请及时联系处理
- The End -
本月推荐阅读
(点击下面文字,即可查看)
智慧教、聪明学,吴燕萍老师的“减压课堂”真欢乐丨Ekwing 骨干研修班课例展播(二)(内含课件 PPT)
2017 下半年,如果你还做教师,看看这篇文章
当你听到风声,那是我在对你告白丨Ekwing 留声机
9 月 1 日全国启用,10 个关键词带你看新编三科教材 (内含学习资源)丨Ekwing 关注
更多精彩
请持续关注翼课网

文章归档